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80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Mens Division I Basketball Tournament. This revenue is then distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III.
Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer officially used by the NCAA.  In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). Contents1 History2 Headquarters3 Structure3.1 Presidents of the NCAA3.2 Division history4 NCAA sponsored sports4.1 Sports added and dropped5 Championships5.1 Trophies5.2 Football Bowl Subdivision6 Hall of Champions7 Awards8 Conferences8.1 Division I conferences8.2 Division I FCS football-only conferences8.3 Division I hockey-only conferences8.4 Division II conferences8.5 Division III conferences8.6 Division III football-only conferences8.7 Other Division III single-sport conferences9 Media9.1 Football television controversy10 Eligibility11 Rules violations12 Subsidiaries13 Sponsors14 Finances15 Player compensation16 Criticisms17 Other collegiate athletic organizations17.1 In the United States17.2 Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents17.3 International governing body18 See also19 Notes and references20 Further reading21 External linksHistory [ edit ]Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University and Yale University met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing.
 As rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and often had to be adapted for each contest. The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt to encourage reforms to college football practices in the early 20th century, which had resulted in repeated injuries and deaths and prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport. Following those White House meetings, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules; at a follow-on meeting on December 28, 1905 in New York, 62 higher-education institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).  The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships.
Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid failed to curb abuses. Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance.
The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, and a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Associations Council, and legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games. As college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis.
In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions I, II, and III. Five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision in 2007) in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States. The AIAW was in a vulnerable position that precipitated conflicts with the NCAA in the early 1980s.
Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged womens championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, and most member schools continued their womens athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA.  By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for womens athletics. A year later in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan womens athletic program services and pushed for a womens championship program. In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v.
Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim. Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time.
Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations. In 2009, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, became the NCAAs first non-US member institution. In 2014, the NCAA set a record high of a 989 Million in net revenue. Being just shy of 1 Billion is among the highest of all large sports organizations. Headquarters [ edit ]The NCAAs current National Office in Indianapolis.
The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1955 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri native Walter Byers, moved the organizations headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago (where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairmount Building at 101 West 11th Street in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from the direct influence of any individual conference and to keep it centrally located. The Fairmount was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted Final Four games in 1940, 1941, and 1942.
After Byers moved to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, and 1964. The Fairmount office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers staff consisted of four people: an assistant, two secretaries, and a bookkeeper. In 1964, it moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre.
In 1973, it moved to 6299 Nall at Shawnee Mission Parkway in suburban Mission, Kansas in a 1.2 million building on 3.4 acres (14,000m2). In 1989, it moved 6 miles (9.7km) farther south to 6201 College Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres (45,900m2) and had 130,000 square feet (12,000m2) of space.
The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas suburban location noting that its location on the south edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors center. In 1997, it asked for bids for a new headquarters. Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis. Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center complex and would locate the visitors center in Union Station. However Kansas Citys main sports venue Kemper Arena was nearly 30 years old.
 Indianapolis argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two-thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.  The 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed the 17,000-seat Kemper Arena. In 1999, the NCAA moved its 300-member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story 140,000-square-foot (13,000m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.  Structure [ edit ]The NCAAs legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.
[ citation needed] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. The legislation is then passed on, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff provides support, acting as guides, liaisons, researchers, and public and media relations. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following: basketball, baseball (men), beach volleyball (women), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men). The newest sport to be officially sanctioned is beach volleyball, which will hold its first championship in the 201516 school year.
Presidents of the NCAA [ edit ]The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.  In 1988, the title was changed to President. Walter Byers 19511988Dick Schultz 19881993Cedric Dempsey 19942002Myles Brand 20032009Jim Isch (interim) 20092010Mark Emmert 2011present Division history [ edit ]See also: List of NCAA Division I institutions, List of NCAA Division II institutions, List of NCAA Division III institutions, and List of Division I Athletic Directors Years Division 19061956 None 19561972 University Division (Major College) College Division (Small College) 1973present Division I Division II Division III 19782006 Division I-A Division I-AA (football only) Division I-AAA Division II Division III 2006present Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Division I Football Championship Subdivision (football only) Division I (non-football) Division II Division III NCAA sponsored sports [ edit ]The NCAA currently awards 89 national championships yearly 44 womens, 42 mens, and coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. In October 2014, Division I leaders approved the formation of a single all-divisions womens beach volleyball championship beginning in 2016, and Division II and Division III leaders approved the new championship in January 2015.
This will be the NCAAs 90th annual championship.  The NCAA had called the sport sand volleyball until June 23, 2015, when it announced that it would use the internationally recognized name of beach volleyball. The NCAA has awarded, or will award, championships in the following sports:BaseballMensDivision I, CWS (1947present)Division II (1968present)Division III (1976present)BasketballMensDivision I (1939present)Division II (1957present)Division III (1975present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (1982present)Division III (1982present)BowlingWomensSingle Championship (2004present)Boxing1MensSingle Championship (194860)2Cross Country1MensDivision I (1938present)Division II (1958present)Division III (1973present)WomensDivision I (1981present)Division II (1981present)Division III (1981present)Fencing1Mens and WomensSingle Championship (1941present)Field HockeyWomensDivision I (1981present)Division II (1981present)Division III (1981present)FootballMensDivision I (FBS) (Formerly Division I-A) (1973present)Division I (FCS) (Formerly Division I-AA) (1978present)Division II (1973present)Division III (1973present)Golf1MensDivision I (1939present)Division II (1963present)Division III (1975present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (19961999 (combined DII/DIII), 2000present)Division III (19961999 (combined DII/DIII), 2000present)Gymnastics1MensSingle Championship (1938present)Division II (196884)2WomensSingle Championship (1982present)Division II (198286)2Ice HockeyMensDivision I (1948present)Division II (197884, 199399)2Division III (1984present)WomensDivision I (2001present)Division III (2002present)LacrosseMensDivision I (1971present)Division II (1974-1979 (combined DII/DIII), 1980-1981, 1993present)Division III (1974-1979 (combined DII/DIII), 1980present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (2001present)Division III (1985present)Rifle1Mens and WomensSingle Championship (1980present)RowingWomensDivision I (1997present)Division II (2002present)Division III (2002present)Skiing1Mens and WomensSingle Championship (1954present)SoccerMensDivision I (1959present)Division II (1972present)Division III (1974present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (1988present)Division III (1986present)SoftballWomensDivision I, WCWS (1982present)Division II (1982present)Division III (1982present)Swimming and Diving1MensDivision I (1924present)Division II (1964present)Division III (1975present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (1982present)Division III (1982present)Tennis1MensDivision I (1946present)Division II (1963present)Division III (1976present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (1982present)Division III (1982present)Track and Field1IndoorMensDivision I (1965present)Division II (1985present)Division III (1985present)WomensDivision I (1983present)Division II (1985, 1987present)Division III (1985, 1987present)OutdoorMensDivision I (1921present)Division II (1963present)Division III (1974present)WomensDivision I (1982present)Division II (1982present)Division III (1982present)VolleyballIndoorMensDivisions I and II (1970present)Division III (2012present)WomensDivision I (1981present)Division II (1981present)Division III (1981present)BeachWomensSingle Championship (2016future)Water PoloMensSingle Championship (1969present)WomensSingle Championship (2001present)Wrestling1MensDivision I (1928present)Division II (1963present)Division III (1974present)Notes Championships in which an individual title(s) is (are) awarded alongside a cumulative team championship. Championship has been discontinued; also noted with italicsIn addition to the above sports, the NCAA currently recognizes three emerging sports for women. These sports are recognized by the NCAA, with scholarship limitations for each, but do not currently have officially sanctioned NCAA championships. A member institution may use these sports to meet the required level of sports sponsorship for its division.
Equestrian(See Note)RugbyTriathlonNote: Equestrian has been recommended for elimination as an emerging sport due to lack of growth in the number of participating institutions.  Sports added and dropped [ edit ]The popularity of each of these sports programs has changed over time. Between 198889 and 201011, NCAA schools had net additions of 510 mens teams and 2,703 womens teams. In womens sports, the sports with the biggest net gains during the 198889 to 201011 period were soccer (+599 teams), golf, and indoor track and field, while no womens sports programs experienced double-digit net losses.
 In mens sports, the sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988/89 to 2010/11 period were indoor track and field, lacrosse, and cross-country (each with more than 100 net gains), but the mens sports with the biggest losses were wrestling (-104 teams), tennis, and rifle, and the mens team sport with the most net losses was water polo. Other reports show that 355 college wrestling programs have been eliminated since 2000, and 212